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Tedim kam ong pianzia kuppihna

 TEDIM PAU HONG PIANNA KUPPIHNA

Tedim kam hong piankhiat zia kuppihna



Dr James Suan Za Dong MB,BS., D.O. Sydney, Australia


Kampau in hong kinai sak in, hong gawm khawm aa, minam khat ong suak sak hi. Pau om masa lo-in minam om thei lo hi. Minam kician khat i hih nadingin, pau, athupipen khat ahi hi. Tua ahih ciangin, i taang pau, i Tedim pau bangci bangin ong piang khia cih i theih ding thupi hi.


Mi pawlkhatte-in “Tedim pau pen, Tedim ah i teen khop ciangin pau nam tuamtuam kigawmna pan ong piang khia hi “ ci-in agen, lai aa a-at uh i za, i sim kha zeelzeel hi. Hih pen athupi mahmah Tedim mi nampi khat ii taang-pau, i common dialect, i Tedim pau, hong pian khiatna taangthu laai-gil hi aa, zaangkhai laak lo-in, limtak ngaihsunin i etcian phat ding thupi kasa hi. Tangthu siksanin, logical, theithei dingin i enpha ding hi.


Pau tuamtuam azang minam tuamtuamte ateen khopna panin taang pau, lingua franca, khat ong pian khiat theihna dingin anuai aa thu nihte lak ah khat zawzaw hang ahi hi.


I. Pau tuamtuam kigawmna panin pau thak nam khat, taang-pau common dialect in ong piang khia ( evolved ) thei hi. Hih pen haksa mahmah ban ah sauveipi, kum a-tulin akiteen khop, khit ciangin damdamin piang thei bek hi. Piang mengmeng nawn lo hi

II. Pau tuamtuam kigawmna panin a thahatpen khat, taang-pau ong suak thei hi. Amasa sangin hun tomzaw tham la hi. Tu mahmahin zong piang piang lai hi.


I. PAU TUAMTUAM KIGAWMNA PAN PAU NAM KHAT HONG PIAN KHIATNA


‘Tedim ah i ten khop ciangin pau tuamtuam kigawmna panin Tedim pau hong piang khia hi’ i cih ciangin, “pau-kee tuamtuam, (Teizang, Saizang, Sihzang, Zou, Guite, Thado pau, ctp.,(cihtepawl) kigawmna pan, a-om ngei nai lo, kam-pau thak (Tedim pau), hong piang khia tawm, ‘evolved,’ hi “ cih nopna ahi hi. Ahi thei ding mah hiam?, akizuun mawk hiam? limtak i enpha ding hi.


Bang ci bangin pau nam tuamtuam kigawm khopna pan kam-pau thak nam khat, evolution, tawh hong piang khia tawm thei hiam cih i theih masak kul hi. Hih pen piang mengmeng lo-in, hun sawtpi kisam hi. Mang pau, English, hih bangin ong piang khia ahi hi.


English pen Germanic peoples ahi, Angles, Saxon, Jutes, Frisii leh Franks-te ban ah Latin pau azang Roman Empire mite tawh Migration hun lai aa kipan kum tul nih dektak sung ki hel zau-in ateen khopna pan un hong piang khia, evolved, kam pau thak, English language, ahi hi.


Hih mite kum tampi sung ong om khop zau uh ciangin 5th Century panin 11th Century dong, ( kum 600) khit ciangin Old English ong piang khia zo pan hi. Tua khit, Middle English pen 11th pan 15th Century dong ( kum 400 ), tua zawh ciangin 15th pan 17th Century dong ( kum 200 ) khit ciangin Early Modern English hong piang pan aa, tuni aa ki zangh Modern English pen 17th Century pan tu ciang , kum 300 val bang hun saupi la hi. A vekin, tua pau nam tuamtuamte kigawmna pan kum 1500 val khit ciangin, tuni aa kizangh English pau piicingtakin, hong suak khia, evolved, zo pan ahi hi. (History of the English language, Wikipedia Encyclopedia; Cecigani Fousto 1981, Mallory, JP 2005 and Simek, Rudolf 2007 te ki-etkak )


Hi bang aa hong pian khiat theih nadingin ateen khop hun lai-un, sumzuak-sumlei, trades, leh Roman galkap sung ah nasepna cihbangin kihel-kigawm khopna hoih mahmah nei uh hi. Lai zong nei khin uh hi. Pau kigawm theih nadingin, trades, sumzuak-sumleina athupipen khat ahi hi. Tua bang hi napi, Angles, Saxon, Jutes, Frisii, Franks leh Latin mite pau kigawmin pau thak nam khat ahi, English, piicingtak aa, ong pian khiat nading kum 1500 val kisam mawk hi.


Tua ahih leh, Tedim ah Zomite i pau tuamtuam kigawmin pau picingtaak khat ahi, ‘Tedim pau’ hong pian khiat nading zah dongin bang tanvei Tedim ah i teeng khawm ngei hiam?, i ‘suulzuih’ ding hi


Ciimnuai aa kipan tu ciang, hun thumin i khen ding hi. 1. Tedim kisat maa, (Pre-Tedim); 2. Tu-maa aa Tedim, ahk.(ahih keh),Tedim Masa (Former Tedim), 3. Tulaitak aa Tedim (Today Tedim) ci-in khenin i en ding hi.


1. Tedim kisat-maa : ( Pre-Tedim ) : Hih hun pen, Ciimnuai i teen lai 1569 kiim [ Dr E H East-Burma Manuscript, page 123. (1400 kiim a-ummawh zong om hi )] pan Tedim Masa akisat 1750 kum ( pawl khatte’n, 1600 ) sung teng ahi hi. Ciimnuai ah khang giat akiteen khit ciangin mun tuamtuam ah ki lal khia hi. Tu aa Tedim khua mun pawlteng ah nidang pekin, Thahdote, Vaipheite, Guite, Ganghte, Thawmte, Kawmte, mun tuam ciat ah hun tuamtuam sungin nateeng ngei uh hi. Tual gal om hun lai ahih ciangin, khat leh khat kikihta-in teeng khawm lo uh hi. Khuangzang, Sekzang, Phuaizang leh adang mun tuam-tuam ah na teng uh hi. Tedim kisat maa, Pre-Tedim hunin i pau ki gawm lo hamtang ding hi.


2. Tumaa Tedim ahk. Tedim-Masa : ( Former Tedim ) : Hih pen Tedim kisat pan kipan, Mangkang kumpi-in Tedim ahal ciang sung teng ahi hi. ‘Tedim’ ci aa min aphuak Thadote Guite hi dingin tangthu kan pawlkhat-in um uh hi. Bang hanghiam cih leh, ‘Te’ cih pen Vansangdim bual tui-in nitang lengin ‘te’ cihna hi in, ‘dim’ pen Thado pau-in ‘bual tui’ cihna ahih ciangin, Tedim min Thado-te phuah hi dingin um uh hi. Thadote-in zong tuni dong mah, “Tedim, ko khua hi” ci liuliau lai uh hi.


Guite Pu Gui Mangin, na sat in Tedim na phuak hi zong kici hi. Zote Pu Em Do in zong sat ngei aa mi dang zong om lai hi. “Khukpi, ko Thawmte khuat hi” ci-in a-angtanpih zong om taleuleu hi. Hih hun sung ii atuung, earlier, lamin kiteeng zeel ahih hangin gal leh sa hangin, ki lawi zeelzeel hi. Anunung lam, later, hun ciang bekin hoih takin kiteeng khawm pan hi. Ahih hangin Mangkang kumpi-in ong hal ciangin hih Tedim Masa ong bei leuleu hi. Zomi kuamah teeng nawn lo in Mangkang kumpi-in hong la hi.


Hih Tedim Masa hun pen (i) Earlier Former-Tedim leh (ii) Later Former-Tedim ci-in i khen ding hi.


(i) Earlier Former-Tedim : Tedim-Masa ii atuunglam, 1750-1840 : Hih pen,Tedim kisat pan kipan, Pu Kam Hau, Pu Mang Gin leh Pu Khoi Lamte ( atomin, MKK ) makai-in ong uk maa hun teng ahi hi. Tedim kisat maa hunte mah bangin, gal leh sa tam lai ahih manin kiteeng suak zo lo-in kinusia kik zeelzeel hi. Tua ahih manin, “Tedim ah tap kuavei kiluak hi” ci-in khangluite-in na gen uh hi. Teeng suak zo lo-in giatvei na lal uh ahih ciangin, Tedim-Masa ii atuunglam, Earlier Tedim hun sungin zong i pau-te kigawm lo ding hi.


(2) Later Former-Tedim : Tedim-Masa ii anunung lam, (MKK)te-in ong uk hun, 1840-1889 : Hoihtak leh nuamtakin khuapi lian khat asuah dong Tedim ah amasapen akiteen khop hun ahi hi.


1800 kiim pawl aa kipan Tedim ah tawmtawmin kiteng kik aa, gal launa hong tawm-zaw ta ahih manin, kilawi nawn lo-in khang to semsem hi. Ahih hangin Pawi gal, Meitei gal ki lauthawng lai simsim ahih manin, Falam gam Dalang hausapa, Pu Khuangceu tawh akimeltheih, Pu Kam Hau, Tedim hausa dingin Mualbem pan kizol aa, 1840 kum aa kipan Pu Mang Gin leh Pu Khoi Lam-te tawh (MKK) ong makaih uh ciangin Dimtui vang khua, inn 300 val aphak dong ngaihmuangtakin Tedim ah kiteng khawm hi. Hih pen minam-kee tuamtuamte Tedim ah kihelzau-in ngaihmuang-takin i ten khop amasapenpen hun ahi hi.


Ahih hangin kum 50 bek sawt hi. 1889 kum ciangin gamkeek Mangkang kumpi-in Tedim haal ( Dr Desmond’s Kelly’s Burma Campaign, page 29 ) ahih manin kinusia-in, ‘Dimtui vang khau-inn 300 val, Tedim – Masa (Former-Tiddim) hong beileuleu ta hi. Tedim khua anunungpen akilawihna ahi hi.

Hih hun tomno, kum 50 sung bekin i pau tuamtuamte kigawmin Tedim pau khat hong piang tawm, evolved, thei lo ding hi. Banghang hiam cih leh ei sangin, atamzaw, sumzuak-sumleina leh lai anei khin, aki helzauzaw, Europe gam mite nangawn kum tul nih dektak ateen khopna sung uah, Mangpau-aluui, Old English, hong pian nading bek nangawn kum 600 val kisam hi. Tua nangawn, apiicing Mangpau, English, hi nai lo lai hi.


I pau-kee tuamtuamte kigawmin pau nam khat, Tedim pau, hong pian khiat nadingin kum 600 sangin sauvei la zaw kaan lai ding hi. Bang hanghiam cihleh, trades i nei kei hi. Lai i nei kei hi. Amimal mahmah i tawm hi. Kum 50 sung bek kihelzau-in Tedim ah i teeng khawm ngei hi. Tedim-Masa ii anununglam, MKK hun, kum 50 sung bekin, pau nam khat piang khia thei lo ding hi.


3. Tu-aa Tedim hun : ( Today-Tedim ), 1910 pan tuni dong : A nihveina nuamtak i teen khopna : Gam-keek Mangkang kumpi-in Tedim ong haal ciangin Tedim masa ong bei-in kum sawm nih sung Tedim ah Zomi ateeng om lo-in kinusia hi. 1891 kumin Tedim hong la (KBC), aa, hong tonpih uh anasem Gorkhate, Kala sumbuk bawlte leh Sen inn lam thei khutsiamte bek na teeng uh hi.Tua hunin Tedim ah Golkha pau leh Urdu pau bek kizang hi.


Tu laitak aa i Tedim khuapi ( Today Tedim ) ah, 1910 kiim aa kipanin Zomite tawmtawmin kiteeng kik panpan hi. Tua Zomite,  Teizang minam-kee Pu Pau Za Kam, Saizang minam-kee Pu Gin Thual, Pu Thang Langte, leh Khuano minam-kee, Pu Thawng Cin ( tawmvei khit ciangin, ciah kik ) te Tedim ah nateeng masa uh hi.


 Lamzang pau ( Lai i neih ciangin Kamhau pau kici ) na zang hi. Pu Pau Za Kam, Teizang pau, Pu Gin Thual leh Pu Thang Langte, Saizang pau, Pu Thawng Cin, Khuano pau na zang ciat uh hi. Tua zawh kum thum, 1913 ciangin, Lamzang pau ahi, Kamhau pau tawh Zolai ki bawl hi.( anuai ah acingzaw-in) Hih kum thum hun sung bekin i kigawmna pan pau athak, Tedim pau hong pianglo ding hi.


Tua hi aa, Tedim ki sat maa aa kipan, Tedim Masa (Former Tedim) hun nih sung ahi zongin, Tuni aa Tedim ( Today-Tedim) hun sung ahi zongin, i pau tuamtuamte kigawmin Tedim Pau hong pian, evolve, theih nading zahin hun, mun leh thu om ngei lo hi.


II. PAU TUAMTUAM KIGAWMNA PAN AHATPEN TAANG-PAU HONG SUAHNA:


Tu aa ih taang-pau ‘ Tedim pau’ thu i gen ciangin, Lamzang thu gen loh phamawh hi. Banghang hiam cih leh, i taang-pau, Tedim Dialect, pen akhanglui mahmah Lamzang mite pau-awkaih ahi hi. “Lamzang aphat lai-in inn 700 ciang pha in Guite Pu Mang Sum in Ukpi sem hi. A sialkong aa asuan mawng kung tu-in po lai hi” ci-in kum 87 apha Pu Lo Za Khen leh Pu Thang Khen Cinte-in Rev Thang Khawm Pau tung ah 23.05.2014 ni-in a interview-na ah gen uh hi. Tedim inn 300 aphak ma pekin, Lamzang inn 700 na pha khin ahih ciangin, akhanghaam mahmah khua lian khat ahi hi.


Lamzang pen Geeltui tawh ki khan-gual himhim dingin ki-um hi. A mite zong, Teizang, Saizang, Sihzang, Zou, ctp.(cihtepawl); tawh Ciimnuai hun lai pekin a om khinsa, Lamzang minam-kee ahi hi. Tangthu aa kigen, Phucil leh Nan Tal zong Lamzang ah na teng uh hi. Nan Tal asih ciangin a zi, Nei No (Ni No zong kici) in la phuak aa,: “ Nan Tal na han tualzaang ah ee, Sialcing naupang lam nalingling ee//, Nan Tal nong lam ding sang ee “ (Rev. Dr Go Za Kham kiangpan) Hih hun lai pek aa kiphuak lamalte i et ciangin tuni aa Lamzang pau mah na hi khin hi.


Hun khat lai-in Lamzang Hausa Pu Thang Go Guite in a zikik leh a tate nih tawh Losau khua (anihveina) na sat hi (Zomi Encyclopedia- Sia Pum khan Nang) Losau pen Lamzang khua gei hi aa, amite zong Lamzang pan mah ahih ciangin, Lamzangte/Lamzangte Losaute mah ahi hi ( Pu Lo Za Khen 23.05.2014). Tua ahih manin, khanglui, upa mite-in, Lamzang awkaih azang, Anlang, Gawng, Kansau, Lailui, Ngennung, Thangkhal, Tonzang, Tuithang, Suangsaang, ctp., ‘Losau mi – Lamzangmi’ na ci uh hi. ( Pi Ging Zen, No. 1, Pu Vum Tual,. No. 2, Page 6 leh Pu Dam Khupin agen, atupa, Pu Kham Go Pau zakna bang, Pu Kham Zen, ctp. …. )


Lamzang pen awkaih akibatpih, Anlang, Gamlai, Gawng, Lailui, Mauvom, Ngennung, Ngalbual, Taaklam, Tonzang, Tuithang, ctp., khua 30 valte sung ah akhangluipen, a-uhaampen, abulpi, aphungpi ahi hi.


Losau-Lamzang mite amimal limlimin tam, (khua 30 val) hi. A awsuah uh neem hi. Teitangin navaak uh hi. Mi pawlbawl siam uh hi. Kipawl khawm thei uh hi. Thu khual uh hi. A pau uh thakhauh hi.


J H Cope Topa 1910 kumin Tedim hong tun khit ciangin “ Zolai hong bawlsak ding aa aki pat, hunin Kam Hau uk kici i gam sung ah pau nam 10 val bang na om khin hi. Tuate-in: Teizang, Khuano, Phaileng, Guite, Paihte, Dim, Saizang, Zou, Thahdo, Hualngo, cihte ahi hi. ( ‘Tedim pau tawh Zolai ki bawl cilna’ Pi Luan Za Cing )


Zolai aki bawl ding ciangin, siahkai tingteng, Thahdo, Zou leh Paihte hausa gukte-in Tedim khua sung aa kizangh pau tawh bawl ding adeih uh ciangin, (Pu Ngul Lang’ Diary), Cope Topa-in Tedim khua sung aa kizangh pau tawh hong bawl sak hi. Tedim khua sung ah bang pau kizangh cih, i en ding hi.


Tedim kiim teng ah Gawng, Lamzang, Lailui, Ngennung, Thangkhal khuate leh, Lamzang tawh awsuah akinaipen, Saizang pau azang, Teklui, Lailo, Tualzang, Sezang, leh Saizang khuate-in Tedim uumcihin om diimdiam uh hi. Tedim pen Mangkang Vuandok zum omna leh sumbuk om masakna khua ahih ciangin, vanlei ding, vanzuak ding, zum vai leh apai, ahawh mawkmawk dingin hih khuate panin ki nilehin nisimin Tedim nawksuk-nawkto uh ahih manin, Tedim khua sung ah Lamzang pau leh Saizang pau akizangpen pau ahi hi.


Tua hun, 1910 kiimin Kamhau Uk sung ah, Tedim Pau cih om lo hi. ( Atung ah, Tedim pau tawh Zolai kibawl cilna.) Om hi leh, na kihel hamtang ding hi. Tua ban ah, Mangkang kumpi-in, i ngeinate hong kem suak sak lai-in, siahtung-siahphei zong hong pia sakin, Kamhau upadi zong hong zang sak lai ahih ciangin, ‘Tedim Pau’ om hileh, ‘Tedim Dialect’ na ci ding hi. Tua tham lo-in, Tedim aa omte-in zong na deih, na kal ding uh hi. Om lo ahih manin, Tedim khua sung aa kizangh Lamzang pau tawh Zolai kibawlin,‘ Kamhau Dialect ’ na kici hi.


Pau-kee tuamtuamte lak pan Lamzang pau hong thahatpen hi. Tu-ni aa i Tedim khua sung ah akizang masapen pau khat ahi hi. Cope Topa-in Tedim khua sung ah kizangh Lamzang pau tawh Zolai abawl ciangin, Lamzang mi, Gawngmual khua Sia Cin Lang in na huh hi. ’Kamhau Dialect’ ci-in saang ah kisin sak ahih manin official dialect, hong suak aa, zum lai leh laipai khempeuh Kamhau pau kizangin, i gambup ii taang pau hong suak hi. Tua hun lai-in Kamhau gambup pen tu aa Tedim gam, Tonzang gam leh Kansau gamteng khempeuh ahi hi.


1948 kum, Independence i ngah khit ciangin, hun hong kikheelin ‘Kamhau’ cih sangin damdamin, i gambup a-uk Vuandok zum omna, ‘Tedim’ hong minthang zaw semsem aa, Subdivision hong suah ciangin ‘Tedim pau’ ci-in ong nung-pian ahi hi.


’Tedim pau’ cih kammal, tangthu tawh i et ciangin, 1948 khit ciangin damdamin hong piang hi pan aa, khangmoi mahmah hi. Kamhau Gam ii pau-in Kamhau pau ahih mah bangin, Kamhau, Tedim tawh i laih ciangin, ‘Tedim pau’ zong ‘Tedim Gam bup ii, i taang pau ahi hi.


Et kikna : 1. Earlier part of Former Tedim hun : Kiptak kiteeng lo-in, ‘tap kuavei kiluak’ hi Tap kuavei ki luak ahih ciangin giatvei, gal kitai hi ding hi. I pau kigawm man lo ding hi. 2. Later part of Former Tedim hun : kum 50 sung bek nuamtakin kiteeng khawm hi. Kampau khat kum 50 sung bekin, evolve, thei lo ding hi. 3. Today-Tedim, (Tuni – aa i Tedim), hun : Tedim akiteen zawh kum thum ( 1910-1913) khit ciangin, Kamhau (Losau) pau-in lai i nei hi. Kum thum sungin, Lamzang, Saizang, Teizang pau pan pau nam khat piang khia, ‘evolved’ lo ding hi.


Hih teng i et cing dimdem khit ciangin, ‘Tedim pau’ i cih, pen, akigen mawkmawk bangin “Tedim ah i teen khopna pan ong piang khia pau hi phiingphiing lo hi. Ciimnuai laipekin a-omsa, Lamzang pau hi aa, Phucil, Nan Tal, Nei No-te zong Lamzang pau-in la na kiphuah khin uh hi. (Neino-in Nan Tal a la phuah)


Lamzang – Lamzang minam-kee thu, ka tuah khak ngei thu nih :


1. Ka neu lai, Tuu-aa Tedim (Today Tedim) ah inn 30 val bek ka phak lai-un, hong peemta, Pi Ging Zen pen numei pilvaang, tangthu-tuanthu athei mahmah nupi khat ahi hi. Amuiciai ciangin, ko Tedim naupangte ong phin thei zeel aa, “ Hei, Tedim naupangte, kiphasak kei un, Lamzang mi ka hi uh! Tedim bulpite ka hi uh maw ! ” hong ci thei zeel hi. Ni khat, Ginpi (Kim Khua Gin) leh ‘NaSuan (Nang Za Suan) hehin “ Lo nei beek kei uh teh; na huan uh lah sau pet kei “ acih uh leh suang tawh deen hong sawm mawkin deel zeenin ka tai keek uh hi. A mau Suangsaang khua pan ong peem uh hi aa, awkaih pen, Lamzang i cih te ahi hi. Tedimte’ bul, ‘Lamzang hi’, ci hi. ‘Tedim pau ii abuipi Lamzang pau hi’ zong, aci hipah hi.


2. 1948 kum, Independence ih ngah khit ciangin, Tedim gam ah amasa pen Party nih mee tawh kiteelna om aa, tua hun laitakin Pu Vum Tual Tedim hong pai khat tawh kituak hi. Ka pa, Gin Thual, tung. “ Hih pen Thu Hoih Vaihawm Pawl ( THVP ) leh Khamtung Suahtak Vaihawm Pawl ( KSVP ) kiteelna hi aa THVP te pen Lamzang mi – Lamzang mite-in panpih zawdiak in tua lo tengin KSVP panpih uh hi. Kei zong Lamzang mi hi’ng. Ahi zongin ke’n ka mee-tang ……- te pia ning” ci hi. ‘Losaumi ‘ akicih ciangin, suang tawh deen ong sawm pi Ging Zen’ khuapih sa-in kihta sim pian pah ka hih manin ka mangngilh thei ngiat kei hi.


Pu Vum Tual pen Kansau khuate hi aa, Lamzang pau awkaih azang khuate khat ahi hi. Tapidaw suak masa, a khua ah Pawlpi keem sia hi-in Tedim ah Sangmang F O Nelson tawh ki mu dingin hong pai sialin ko inn ong tung den hi. Mite thudot, tangthu aciing mi pil khat zong ahi hi. Kansaute Lamzang mi hi ci hi. Kansaute pau zong Lamzang pau hi aci zong hi pah hi.


Thu khupna:


Tedim ah i teen khopna panin pau tuamtuam kigawmin Tedim pau hong piang khia tawm hi lo hi. ‘Tedim’ kici kammal a om maa, Ciimnuai hun lai pekin ‘Lamzang  mite pau’ ahi hi. 1910 kumin Tedim gam sung aa pau nam sawm a kiciamtehna sung ah ‘ Lamzang pau’ om hi. Tua Lamzang pau Zolai akibawl 1913 kum ciangin, ‘Kamhau pau’ ci-in min kilpia hi.1948 kum nunglam ciangin hun hong kikheelin, damdamin ‘ Tedim pau’ ci-in kikhel leuleu hi.


Mailam ah hih i ‘Tedim pau’ pen ‘ Zopau ‘ icih hun zong hong tung lel ding hi ci-in ka um hi.



Dr James Suan Za Dong

MB,BS., D.O. Sydney, Australia

C/O~TGtuangpy=KyawShwe

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